Deliverable 1.4

Abstract: Integrating strategies at sub-catchment and local scale and strategies at catchment and European scales

Practical adaptation, mitigation and restoration strategies are urgently required by river basin managers either to adapt to future climate change or to minimise the effects of future change on current or restored situations. Within REFRESH we have reviewed the effectiveness of adaptation and mitigation measures already being practised in Europe at different scales. The objective was to collect and review strategies at sub-catchment and local scales for rivers, lakes and wetlands and to combine these with strategies at catchment and European scales. In Deliverable 1.4 the adaptation strategies and measures already under discussion at sub-catchment and local scales were reviewed and assessed to examine how such strategies are being and can be implemented. To facilitate this, experts from different European climate regions were asked to help to

(i) compile a list of local and sub-catchment adaptation measures and

(ii) to relate these measures to temperature or precipitation changes (predicted climate change).

For streams and rivers 15 adaptation strategies with a total of 51 adaptation measures were listed. For lakes the experts identified 11 adaptation strategies with a total of 41 adaptation measures. Each of the measures was given a score that relates to a specific climate pressure differentiated for the European climate region: Atlantic, boreal, alpine, continental and Mediterranean region. Measures were scored according to one or more climate change effects: no climate change related pressure, temperature rise, increase winter precipitation, summer extremes, water quality and others. The selected strategies at local and sub-catchment scales were compared with strategies at catchment/basin and European scales. The most important conclusions were:

(i) habitat restoration measures were far more listed at small scales compared to large ones,
(ii) restoration of the water network occurred at small scale and lacks at large ones,
(iii) water retention storage capacity measures are more often listed at lower scales at large scales more emphasis is on flow restoration, reforestation, floodplain restoration, riparian/buffer zone restoration, improvement of connectivity, and sediment load reduction (especially through run-off)

In general, as climate change is still unpredictable and the best way to move forward in adaptive management is to strengthen the resistance and resilience of freshwater bodies.

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