Deliverable 4.15

Practical report/document on which HD Annex II, red-listed, and typical species are most vulnerable in a climate change context, and which Habitat Directive riparian habitat types are most vulnerable to climate change

Abstract: This deliverable comprises an inventory the European species and habitats most sensitive to climate change. These were identified on the basis of i) Natura 2000 and IUCN Red List, ii) for species, having limited bioclimatic distribution of habitat in Europe and/or isolation of bioclimatic niche within zone/region of unsuitable conditions, inferring vulnerability to slight shift in climate, and iii) for habitats, especially where the habitat is defined on the basis of a large number of individual species and where some of these are vulnerable as defined by the latter criterion.
As much of the information has been derived directly from the IUCN Red List, the REFRESH project must have regard to the copyright restrictions - see


The table comprises the following fields;
Ecosystem_type1 (Common to what ecosystem type: River, Lakes, Wetlands)
Climate_Region1 (Cold, temperate, warm)
Organism_group (Plants, insects, amphibians etc.)
Winner or Loser
Climate_change_impact (Main threat: temperature raise, water level increase/decrease, nutrient increase, landuse etc.)
Response_description (Textual description)
More information on the species (link to other website for further reading)
Reference (cited literature)

The table is available on the REFRESH Web site at

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